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Persulfate

Persulfate is another commonly used oxidizing agent for in-situ chemical oxidation applications. It is most frequently applied in the subsurface as sodium persulfate (NaS2O8). The reaction that occurs produces a strong oxidizer (the persulfate radical). Below are the basic reactions to obtain the persulfate radical. In addition, the reduction potentials for several other oxidants used for ISCO are listed. The persulfate radical is a stronger oxidizer than hydrogen peroxide, permanganate, and ozone. Only the hydroxyl free radical is a stronger oxidizer.

Persulfate radicals are most readily formed with the addition of heat or the use of a transition metal catalyst:

Sodium persulfate is effective against a wide range of contaminants, including:
Hydrocarbons  
BTEX MTBE
Ketones PAH
Dioxane    
Chlorinated Solvents  
Dioxane PCE
TCE DCE
VC CB
DCA CH2Cl2
CHCI PCB
Chloromethane    
Pesticides
   

Persulfate Limitations

 
Creates high sulfate conditions in groundwater
Not well tested in-situ
Difficult to control / catalyze
Bullet Requires elevated temperatures to remediate contaminants

 

 


Chemical Oxidation
Fenton’s Reagent
Permanganate
Bullet Persulfate
Bullet Ozone
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